Modern living has led to a rise in several illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, mental ailments, orthopaedic issues, among others. Students interested in the medical field have several options and specialisations to choose from.Here are a few popular choices.
Though students have an array of courses to choose from at the UG level, MBBS is the most popular choice. The five-and-a-half year programme trains students in anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, pathology, pharmacology, microbiology and forensic medicine. They are also introduced to subjects like ENT, ophthalmology, community medicine, medicine, paediatrics, surgery and orthopaedics and obstetrics and gynaecology. They are given exposure to radiology, anaesthesia, psychiatry, dermatology and venereology, emergency medicine, etc.The course focuses on the theory and practical teaching of subjects and a one-year internship that helps students develop real time experience in preventive, promotive and curative medical services under supervision.
Students who wish to study the course must have completed class XII with biology, physics and chemistry as their subjects. They are also required to clear a test such as the All India Pre-Medical PreDental Entrance Test (AIPMT) National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET UG).
Graduates can practice privately or seek employment in the corporate sector as casualty medical officers. They can also look for a range of opportunities in government-managed initiatives organisations such as the National Health Mission, state services, railways, army and paramilitary forces, civil aviation units, etc, to work as medical officers. Alternately, they can practice in other countries on clearing the respective licensing exams. A practising doctor never retires. Even after formal retirement from the government sector, a doctor is entitled to practice for as long as she wishes. Freshers can earn up to Rs 75,000 per month depending on their skills and job role.
Veterinary medicine is a multidisciplinary subject that focuses on the diagnosis, control, prevention and treatment of animal diseases as well as on the basic welfare and care of animals. Veterinary science is a multipotential field. With more animals being bred, the demand for veterinary doctors will increase in the days to come. Students who wish to pursue the Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSc) are required to pass class XII or equivalent with physics, chemistry, biology and English as their subjects. Admission to most veterinary colleges is on the basis of the marks a candidate obtains in the All India Pre-Veterinary Test. Veterinarians can work as animal inspectors, animal care and service workers, biological scientists, specialists, pharmacy research scientists, etc, with hospitals, dairy research institutes, government projects, animal food companies, zoos and wildlife sanctuaries, etc. Government veterinary centres appoint junior veterinary surgeons at a starting salary that ranges between Rs 10,000 and 15,000. A private practitioner gets more than Rs 300 per patient.
Students who pursue a Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) are trained in subjects like orthodontics, periodontics, operative dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery, paediatric dentistry and oral pathology. Candidates who have passed class XII with at least 50% and physics, chemistry and biology as their subjects are eligible to apply to the course. Apart from an MDS degree, candidates can consider fellowship programmes to improve their clinical expertise in various universities offering qualifications such as the diploma in implant dentistry endodonticsorthodontics. The employment scope in central state government facilities is limited. The starting salary is about is Rs 50,000 and varies from state to state. Most dentists start their private practice. Doctors can also pursue research, set up their clinics, join dental equipment manufacturing companies or start teaching.